Hummel figurines, based on the drawings of the nun M.I. Hummel (Berta Hummel), were made by the W. Goebel Porzellanfabrik of Oeslau, Germany, now Rodental, Germany. They were first made in 1935. The Crown mark was used from 1935 to 1949. The company added the bee marks in 1950. The full bee with variations, was used from 1950 to 1959; stylized bee, 1957 to 1972; three line mark, 1964 to 1972; last bee, sometimes called vee over gee, 1972 to 1979. In 1979 the V bee symbol was removed from the mark. U.S. Zone was part of the mark from 1946 to 1948; W. Germany was part of the mark from 1960 to 1990. The Goebel W. Germany mark, called themissing bee mark, was used from 1979 to 1990; Goebel, Germany, with the crown and WG, originally called the new mark, was used from 1991 through part of 1999. A new version of the bee mark with the word Goebel was used from 1999 to 2008. A special Year 2000 backstamp was also introduced. Porcelain figures inspired by Berta Hummel’s drawings were introduced in 1997. These are marked BH followed by a number. They were made in the Far East, not Germany. Goebel discontinued making Hummel figurines in 2008 and Manufaktur Rodental took over the factory in Germany and began making new Hummel figurines. Hummel figurines made by Rodental are marked with a yellow and black bee on the edge of an oval line surrounding the words Original M.I. Hummel Germany. The words Manufaktur Rodental are printed beneath the oval. Manufaktur Rodental was sold in 2013 and new owners, Hummel Manufaktur GmbH, have taken over, but the figurines continue to be made in the factory in Rodental. Other decorative items and plates that feature Hummel drawings have been made by Schmid Brothers, Inc., since 1971. For more information, explore our identification guides for Goebel-Hummel and its marks.