Pottery & Porcelain Marks – Crown & Shield: First used in the 19th century, marks of crowns and shields range from rough sketches of cylindrical shapes (shield) below two half-circles with a cross jutting out (crown) to elaborate crowns and shields surrounded by detailed wreaths. Other marks like the Staffordshire Knot and a version of the Sevres date mark may be included in the shield. Countries in Europe such as Germany and England often used this mark, but companies in the United States also used it. The country of origin's name was first required as a mark in 1891. It was joined with the phrase "Made in" and has been used since 1914.